Petroleum System Analysis
The establishment of a petroleum system is essential to form oil and gas fields. The petroleum system is a unifying concept that encompasses all of the disparate geological or geochemical elements and processes of petroleum geology. Oil and gas fields will not be formed if any of the elements or processes of the petroleum system are missing.
The essential elements and processes of the petroleum system include the following:
- Source: rock that is capable of generating or that has generated movable quantities of hydrocarbons.
- Reservoir: rock that has the ability to store hydrocarbons inside its pores.
- Seal: rock that impedes the escape of hydrocarbons from the reservoir rock.
- Trap: A trap consists of a geometric arrangement of reservoir and seal rocks that allow hydrocarbons to accumulate.
- Migration: After generation and expulsion from a thermally-mature source rock, hydrocarbons must migrate through carrier beds, faults, and fractures into the reservoir rock. If an adequate trap and seal are present, hydrocarbon migration will cease and the reservoir will be filled.
Elements and processes of a petroleum system
Improving the discovery rate of oil and gas fields
These essential elements and processes must be correctly distributed in time and space. To improve the discovery rate of oil and gas fields, comprehensive evaluation of each element and process of the petroleum system is important. JOGMEC is conducting basin modeling which is a computer simulation technique that models generation, migration, and accumulation of oil and gas in a sedimentary basin.
Results of 3D basin modeling in a Middle-East marine oil field.